The cataract takes place when a lens that we have inside our eye, which is called crystalline lens, becomes opaque. It is an ordinary fact that in all human beings a progressive opacification happens, as a result of the passing of time. The patients start to blur, as if they were looking through a steamy window. They are dazzled by night lights or they are dazzled when driving at a dark tunnel. They also start to need more light to be able to read, and they become tired when reading. They even see double and see the colours completely altered. The surgery consists in substituting the opaque crystalline lens by a high-technology intraocular lens which allows the patients to recover the visual acuity.
The myopia, the hyperopia, the astigmatism, and the presbyopia are alterations in the capacity of the eye's focus, so that the patient may see blurry objects, people, etc. away, near or both.
The refractive surgery can be a good option for patients who want to reduce their dependence on spectacles or contact lenses. However, they must have pre-surgical studies done, in order to determine whether their eye's characteristics allow the carrying out of such surgery.
Some refractive defects can be treated with excimer laser (LASIK, PRK) and for some others the placement of intraocular lenses (ICL, IPCL, Artiflex, Artisan or pseudophaquic lenses) is necessary.
The age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative process which is produced in a zone within the retina named macula. It consists of the deposit of drusen or waste which causes a decrease in visual acuity, turbine or blurred vision, and distortion of shapes and colours.
In order to make a diagnosis and to monitor this, it is important to have an eye's fundoscopy performed, as well as an angiofluoresceingraphy and an optical coherence tomography. In case of necessity, treatment with antiangiogenic drugs is done.
It is a disease in which optic nerve damage and a progressive loss of the visual field are produced and in most cases it is associated with ocular hypertension.
Many times the patient has no symptoms and has high ocular pressure. When the damage is established in the optic nerve, it is something irreversible, that is why the routine of measuring the eye pressure and the early diagnosis of glaucoma are important. There are treatments to prevent, decrease or delay the illness evolution.
The options are drops, laser or glaucoma surgery depending on the stage and kind of glaucoma. Nowadays microinvasive procedures in glaucoma surgery exist.
The eyelids, the orbit and the lacrimal system are very important vision related structures, susceptible to diseases and aging that, as a result of not being treated, could have harmful effects on the eye, the quality of life and the patient's self-esteem.
Its treatment is exclusive of the ophthalmologist specialized in oculoplastic surgery, who possesses the essential knowledge and the maximum experience to solve these problems always pleasing for health and visual well-being.
The eyelids problems and the lacrimal system ones go from the simplest to the most complex ones. There are aesthetic problems like wrinkles and lines of expression that must be treated with the latest technology and minimally invasive interventions. On the other hand, there are eyelids illnesses, like the malpositions, ectropion, entropion, blepharochalasis that can hurt the vision related structures. In addition, the illnesses of the lacrimal system can cause chronic tearing and predispose to infections. At an other hand, there are the tumors which sometimes require to be removed for the biopsies performance.